The scale and rate of India’s urban and industrial development goes a long way in improving its citizens’ living standards. But this development comes at a cost: increased pollution and a greater strain on natural resources like raw materials, land and water. This calls for strong measures to protect our soil, water and air, and to conserve our biodiversity. The Ministry of Environment and Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) was formed for this purpose. Its mandate is to prevent and control pollution; conserve flora and fauna; and reduce deforestation and land degradation.